A Guide To The Harvard Referencing Style
Referencing is a crucial aspect of any kind of content, academic or otherwise. The necessity of referencing and citations are numerous:
- It is a reference to the source of information and acknowledges the contribution of that work to the text.
- Proper referencing builds credibility, academic integrity and allows for further research & work on the subject under the scanner.
- It showcases the writer's depth of understanding of the topic and their research & analytical capabilities.
The Harvard Referencing System is a commonly used referencing style or bibliographic citation widely used for academic writing purposes. The generic system used in the referencing style involves mentioning the author and the date as primary referencing notation.
This article offers detailed overviews of the Harvard Referencing System, along with explanations and examples of outlines, in-text citations, referencing guidelines and more.
What Is Harvard Style Referencing?
So, what is the Harvard Style Referencing?
As mentioned above, the Harvard Referencing System is a source citation and referencing style devised at the renowned Harvard University and is currently one of the most popular referencing styles used across global academia.
In the Harvard Referencing System, the author’s surname and year of publication are cited in the text of a particular work. In addition, the information source's full details are added in the reference list that is included as an appendix at the end. The Harvard Style Referencing does not use endnotes or footnotes.
Thus, the style uses references primarily in two places in any writing: in-text citations and the reference list at the end. Writers must ensure that each name that appears as an in-text citation must appear in the reference list, and every entry in the reference list must be referred to in the main text. Thus, every detail in the reference is vital, even the punctuation.
The following section dives deep into the specifics of the Harvard Style Referencing Guidelines.
What Are The Harvard Referencing Guidelines & How To Do Harvard Referencing?
A Look Into Harvard In-Text Citations and Bibliography
Whether you are using automated Harvard Referencing Generators or using the Harvard Style Guide to cite your text manually, in-text references in Harvard Style must comprise the author's family name and the year of the publication of the work. If quotes & paraphrases are used, page numbers must also be mentioned.
Here's a generic example, as it would appear in the reference list.
Habel, C 200, ‘Academic self-efficacy in ALL:capacity-building through self-belief’, Journal of Academic Language and Learning, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 94-104.
An in-text reference would look like this:
“It has been claimed that… (Author YEAR, p. #)
or "Author (YEAR, p. #) claims that…."
Page numbers are a must for in-text citations, especially if one quote or paraphrases. If only a single page is referred to, use the abbreviation p. If you are referring to more than on-page, use the abbreviation pp.
The Reference List or Bibliography
The reference list must include details for every citation in work. In addition, all entries must be written in alphabetical order by the author's name, and all the different works referred to must be mentioned in one sequence.
Sometimes writers may be asked to produce a bibliography, a list of all the information sources referred to in the content but not necessarily cited in the text. For example, any background reading is done to familiarize oneself with a topic.
Note: A reference list is always required when other works are cited in a text. Also, writers must be sure whether they are asked to add a reference list or bibliography.
Read on to learn more about the nitty-gritty of how to use Harvard referencing.
In-text Citations & Reference Entries In The Harvard Referencing Style
The general format of Harvard in-text citations has been discussed. Here are some more details.
- If the author’s name is used, then the year of publication of the work being referred to should follow the name.
Mullane (2006) conducted research…
- If the work has been directly referred to in the text, place the author’s name and year of publication in parentheses at the end of the sentence while writing the Harvard Style In-Text Citations.
- If direct quotes with less than 30 words are used in a text, they must be placed within single quotations within the text. And, publication date and page numbers from where the quote is taken are to be added in parentheses after mentioning the author's name,
Here’s the Harvard Style In-text Citation example.
Mullane (2006, p. 118) ……..’ a statistical anomaly’.
- If the QUOTE IS MORE THAN 30 WORDS, they need to be placed in a double-spaced, indented block without quotation marks. The information referred to MUST BE WRITTEN IN THE AUTHOR'S OWN WORDS and the author's name, publication year & page number are to be added in parentheses at the end.
It was stated that:
….….(Mullane 2006, p.)
- If more than one source has been used to write a statement, then the author names & publication years are to be added in parentheses at the end, separated by a semicolon.
…..(Sanders 2008; Smith 2009)
- For online articles freely available from an e-journal, reference list entries will be SIMILAR TO THAT OF THEIR PRINT COUNTERPARTS BUT MUST INCLUDE THE DATE VIEWED AND THE URL.
The in-text citations are the same as before.
DOI are not necessary for Harvard reference entries.
- For journal articles with two authors, in-text citations should have the family names of both authors separated by an ampersand, followed by the year of publication.
The reference entry is the same as a single writer; an ampersand must separate only the author names.
(Darwin & Palmer2009) Darwin, A & Palmer, E 2009, ….
The same technique is followed for articles with three authors.
- When there are more than three authors in an article, only the first author’s name is listed in the in-text citations followed by et al. and then the publication date.
However, the reference list must list all the names by surname followed by the initials of the first name, with an ampersand separating the names of the last two authors.
- For referencing secondary sources, writers must cite a particular source by referencing the secondary source from where it has been read.
Jones(cited in Smith 2009)…… or …..(Jones, cited in Smith 2009)
The details of the secondary source are to be cited in the reference list.
- When referencing an entry from a dictionary or an encyclopaedia, Harvard Style Referencing does not require the source added to the reference list. Instead, only the title and the year of the source are to be cited in the text.
Guide to agricultural meteorological practices (1981) provides…. or ….(Guide to agricultural meteorological practices 1981)
- Specific chapters and page numbers need not be necessarily mentioned in the reference entries for the Harvard Referencing System. However, adding such details can help readers to locate the source.
In-text citations require only the author’s family name and the publication year.
In case of any reference to an edited book, the editor's name should be mentioned, followed by (ed.)
- While referencing to e-books, if it is publicly accessible, then mention the URL, otherwise say the database alongside the usual, Author Surname, Initials Publication Year, Ebook Name, Publisher Information, Date Accessed, Database Name or the URL
In-text citations need to mention only the author’s family name and the year of publication.
Before rounding up this content, let’s take a look at the Harvard Outline Format for content writing.
What Is The Harvard Outline Format?
The Harvard Outline Format is an outline structure for essays and other types of content writing. It is a structured outline form that helps writers lay out their ideas logically as they appear in the content. The outline should comprise only phrases and words related to the ideas to be presented, but no complete sentences.
Here’s a typical Harvard Outline Format example.
- General Intro
- Thesis Statement
- Body Paragraph 1
- Logical Analysis with Evidence
- Body Paragraph 2
- Logical Analysis with Evidence
- Body Paragraph 3
- Logical Analysis with Evidence
- Evidence 1 with Analysis
- Evidence 2 with Analysis
- Sub-Point (Note that this breakdown can be followed in each body paragraph)
- Summing up all assertions and analysis
- Reiterate the thesis statement, the revelations made & the discussions are done, and the importance of the content. Tell the reader why they should care about what they just read.
The above is a generic outline format and is not at all set in stone. The number and structure of paragraphs are liable to change as per writing requirements.
And that rounds up this brief guide to Harvard Referencing format. Use this guide for quick notes while citing any content. And, in case of any further troubles, seek instant essay and assignment writing assistance from Essaygator.com, a leading global academic writing service.
Struggling To Write & Cite Your Essays The Right Way?
Relax As Essaygator.Com Is Here To Assist
More than 4000 subject matter experts stand ready to offer their expertise for any academic task. Our writers will provide impeccable solutions for your essays and assignments well within the specified deadlines. Proper citations and appendices are added as per requirements and guidelines.
So, drop all your assignment and essay writing requests at our chat portal and have accurate solutions ready in no time at all. What's more, you also get to avail a bunch of unique perks that will make your experience with us worth its while:
- Complete writing assistance for all essay types
- Service Packages at affordable prices
- A simple order placement process
- Free samples
- Zero plagiarism guarantee
- 24/7 customer support service
Call us or drop a message through our chat portal and get excellent assignment writing help from USA's number one academic assistance service, Essaygator.com.